Pollination syndrome

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Baltimore (Euphydryas phaeton) nectaring at daisy (Agryanthemum)
Pollination syndromes are suites of traits of flowers aimed at attracting a particular type of pollinator (F?gri & van der Pijl, 1979; Proctor et al. 1996). The traits include flower shape, size, colour, reward type and amount, nectar composition, timing, etc. For example, tubular red flowers with copious nectar attract birds; nasty smelling flowers attract flies, etc. The syndromes are the product of convergent evolution in response to similar selection pressures.

Plantago media, pollinated by wind or insects
Wind pollination (anemophily)
Flowers may be small and inconspicuous, green and not showy. They produce enormous numbers of tiny pollen grains (hence wind-pollinated plants may be allergens, but seldom are animal-pollinated plants allergenic). They have large feathery stigmas to catch the pollen grains. They grow in low-diversity stands and are among the taller species in their communities. Insects may visit them to collect pollen, but they are not the most effective pollinators and exert little selection pressure on them.
Water pollination (hydrophily)
Water-pollinated plants are aquatic. Their flowers tend to be small and inconspicuous with lots of pollen grains and large, feathery stigmas to catch the pollen. Many aquatic plants are insect-pollinated, with flowers that emerge into the air.
Biotic pollination syndromes

Sunflower pollinated by butterflies and bees
Bee pollination (melittophily)
Bee-pollinated flowers tend to fall into two classes:
Showy, open, bowl-shaped flowers that are relatively unspecialized (e.g. wild roses, sunflowers)
Showy, complicated, non-radially symmetric flowers that are more specialized (e.g. peas, foxgloves)
Some bee flowers tend to be yellow or blue, often with ultraviolet nectar guides and scent. Nectar, pollen, or both are offered as rewards in varying amounts. The sugar in the nectar tends to be sucrose-dominated.
There are diverse types of bees, however. Honeybees, bumblebees, orchid bees, etc are large groups that are quite distinctive in size, tongue length and behaviour (some solitary, some colonial). Thus generalization about bees is difficult (Fenster at al. 2004.) Some plants can only be pollinated by bees because their anthers release pollen internally, and it must be shaken out by buzz pollination. Bees are the only animals that perform this behaviour.
Bee pollination from mobile beehives is of great economic value for orchards such as apple or almond.
Butterfly pollination (psychophily)
Butterfly-pollinated flowers tend to be large and showy, pink or lavender in colour, frequently have a landing area, and are usually scented. Since butterflies do not digest pollen (with one exception), more nectar is offered than pollen. The flowers have simple nectar guides with the nectaries usually hidden in narrow tubes or spurs, reached by the long tongue of the butterflies.

Hesperoyucca whipplei (moth-pollinated)
Moth pollination (phalaenophily)

Day-flying sphinx moth nectaring on Brazilian vervain
Among the more important moth pollinators are the hawk moths (Sphingidae). Their behaviour is similar to hummingbirds: they hover in front of flowers with rapid wingbeats. Most are nocturnal or crepuscular. So moth-pollinated flowers tend to be white, night-opening, large and showy with tubular corollas and a strong, sweet scent produced in the evening, night or early morning. A lot of nectar is produced to fuel the high metabolic rates needed to power their flight.
Other moths (Noctuids, Geometrids, Pyralids, for example) fly slowly and settle on the flower. They do not require as much nectar as the fast-flying hawk moths, and the flowers tend to be small (though they may be aggregated in heads) (Oliveira et al. 2004).

Sapromyophilous Stapelia gigantea
Fly pollination (myophily and sapromyophily)
There are two types of fly pollination: myophily and sapromyophily. Some flies feed on...(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about , . The ICE BUCKET BOWL SHAPE products should be show more here!

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